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Главная » О парфюмерии » Структура запаха: ноты ароматов

Структура запаха: ноты ароматов


Можно сказать, что духи составляются, как пирамида.

Каждая ступень этой пирамиды соответствует определённой характеристике запахов. В основании лежат ароматы конечной ноты: именно они придают духам стойкость. Сердцевинная нота, в полном смысле, является сердцем композиции, представляет её главную тему. Вершина пирамиды - наиболее летучие ароматы, испаряющиеся первыми, лишь только откроют флакон.

Любой запах, и аромат в том числе, является физическим явлением: медленным и постепенным переходом вещества из твёрдого или жидкого состояния в парообразное.

Духи - это смесь множества летучих веществ с различной степенью летучести. Наиболее летучие испаряются первыми и дают духам первоначальные запахи (головная, или начальная нота). Она даёт первое спонтанное впечатление о духах. Эти запахи держатся от нескольких минут до полутора-двух часов и как бы подготавливают нас к основному аромату. К этой группе эфирных масел относятся масла бергамота, лаванды, апельсина, лимона, а также запахи розового дерева, тимьяна, кориандра, эстрагона или розмарина.

Затем в течение нескольких часов испаряются среднелетучие вещества с примесью труднолетучих. Эти запахи составляют ядро и по ним определяют тип запаха духов. Называют их нотами сердца. Сердцевинная нота может быть представлена запахами розовой эссенции, жасмина или герани, гальбана, вербены, померанца, некоторых альдегидов и т.д.

Нота, которая ощущается в завершающей стадии испарения духов и обеспечивает силу и стойкость аромата - конечная нота. Завершающие ноты запаха создают фиксаторы, состоящие из тяжёлых продуктов. Фиксаторами могут служить вещества растительного (дубовый мох, сандал, шалфей, ветивер) или животного происхождения (нибет, мускус, амбра, бобровая струя), а также продукты синтеза (ванилин, искусственный мускус, кумарин, иононы, салицилаты и т.д.).

Запахи животного происхождения способны облагораживать, округлять запах, придавать духам утончённость и темперамент. Они ценны ещё и потому, что устанавливают гармонию между запахом духов и кожей человека. Однородность, тонкость, округлость, равновесие всех трёх нот должны в конце концов создать впечатление единства.

Аромат хороших духов не обрушивается внезапно, а постепенно развивается, разворачивается и держится, не ослабевая, как можно дольше, создавая «симфонию».



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